Macau International Airport Expansion and Reclamation Project
- Project Background
- Project progress overview
- Public tender
- Construction work content
- Introduction to the construction work
- Ecological restoration
In view of the rapid growth of Macau’s tourism industry and the changing structure of Macau’s air passenger transport, as well as the trend of integrating Macau’s air, land and sea transport network with the development of the Pearl River Delta region, Macau International Airport (MIA) is tasked to undertake major improvements on its facilities to meet the demand for air transport driven by environmental, social and economic changes. As such, the Civil Aviation Authority (AACM) and Macau International Airport Company Limited (CAM) collaborated to formulate the Macau International Airport Master Plan (the Master Plan) in 2010.
In July 2016, the Macau SAR Government officially approved the planning report.
In February 2017, the Macau SAR Government submitted an application to the Central Government for airport expansion plan, including the gradual phases of the land reclamation project; between November 2017 and August 2018, in accordance with the comments made by the mainland ministries, AACM conducted the Study on Water Conservancy for the Expansion Plan of Macau International Airport, introducing necessary changes to the layout of the expansion plan.
From August 2019 to June 2021, in accordance with the requirements of the mainland ministries, multiple scientific research projects and reports on the airport expansion project were prepared, namely, flood control assessment report, navigation conditions impact assessment report, argumentation report on the use of sea area and environmental impact assessment report. The two parties had held meetings, conducted site inspections and went through scientific debate sessions in respect of the above research.
In August 2021, the SAR Government officially submitted the application for the land reclamation project to the Central Government.。
In October 2022, the SAR Government has received the official approval document from the Central Government for the land reclamation project for the airport expansion.
Upon receipt of the approval, CAM immediately initiated coordination meetings with the engineering company and various government departments to deliberate on the funding of the land reclamation project, and to form a leading group for expansion and reclamation plan. The working group for expansion and reclamation group was formally established on 30th November 2022, it was necessary to adjust the airport reclamation plan and this amendment was to be finalised on schedule and determine the final design version.
It is envisaged that by 2023 the runway design and data analysis relating to the first phase of the reclamation project will be completed, proceeding with the tendering of the required projects and the necessary monitoring and analysis prior to the commencement of construction work.
3rd quarter 2023
- AACM’s response and comments on the revised version of the “Second and Third Phases” of the Basic Plan of the Reclamation Project have been received in August.
- AACM’s response and comments on the “First, Second and Third Phases” of the Construction Drawing Plan for the Reclamation Project have been received in August, which have been considered for the amendments on the design of the Construction Drawing Plan.
- The environmental monitoring work was launched. According to the CCCC Third Harbour Consultants Macau Company Limited, the land-based preparatory activities (personnel, equipment and vessels) will be completed and its hydrologic monitoring will be formally commenced, as planned. The summer monitoring work will be completed. It is planned that the Autumn Hydrologic Monitoring will commence.
- The study for the sub-phase of the Expansion Project commenced, with the layout of the floor plan for the basic stage of the capacity of 13 million pax being finalised and the commercial plan commencing immediately thereafter.
- Completed the tendering process for MIA Expansion Project – Quantity Surveying Service and MIA Expansion Project – Hydrologic Monitoring, Environmental Monitoring and Ecological Restoration.
2nd quarter of 2023
- Started tendering for quantity surveying service
- Submitted to the AACM and relevant review bodies a basic plan of the reclamation project.
- Collect and analyse all the data from the first phase of the reclamation project.
1st quarter 2023
- Started tendering for environmental monitoring
- Held meetings with AACM and the Land and Urban Construction Bureau (DSSCU) on the concession of land use, and subsequently submitted the optimisation of coordinates, area amendment and respective minutes to AACM, with a copy to the Cartography and Cadastre Bureau (DSCC). Presently, DSCC’s response and comments are being followed up.
- Held meetings to discuss the supply of inert materials for reclamation with the Environmental Protection Bureau (DSPA).
- Held meetings to coordinate environmental monitoring with DSPA, the Municipal Affairs Bureau (IAM) and other relevant departments.
- Held meetings to coordinate the design of reclamation and runway with relevant units.
- Established the leading group and working group for expansion and reclamation plan
- Required the engineering company to complete the reclamation proposal within 60 days and negotiated relevant monitoring tasks of the sea area.
- The Infrastructure Development Department and the consulting firm started preparing the schedule for the reclamation works.
- The Finance & Administration Department prepared plans for the realisation and implementation of the respective funds.
|Public tender period||Project name||Awarded entity|
|24th April - 29th May 2023||MIA Expansion Project – Quantity Surveying Service||Rider Levett Bucknall Macau Limite|
|20th March - 20th April 2023||MIA Expansion Project – Hydrologic Monitoring, Environmental Monitoring and Ecological Restoration||CCCC Third Harbour Consultants Macau Company Limited|
The reclamation works of MIA mainly comprise of the followings:
1. Land reclamation for the sea area between the artificial islands of the runway and the two existing taxiways with the purpose of increasing runway capacity to create additional aircraft stands and to build a runway for rapid take-off;
2. A 95-metre-wide water passage has been reserved between the artificial island and the aircraft apron. The new land and facilities will significantly increase the capacity of the passenger terminal and general aviation facilities, as well as increase the runway capacity.
The reclamation works will be executed in gradual phases, as per traffic demand. Upon conclusion of the final phase of MIA expansion, according to current progress, the entire reclamation project is expected to be completed by 2030.
In addition to increasing the capacity of the airport, the airport reclamation project also aims to relieve the pressure on Macau’s construction material waste landfill, therefore, it was intended to use the consolidated marine mud as the reclamation material. However, due to the launch of the Project of Dumping and Transport of Marine Mud from Macau Construction Materials Waste Landfill (ARMC) by DSPA in 2019, the problem of construction waste materials has been alleviated. Besides, considering that large-scale reclamation works in other regions have started to use inert materials, which are more stable than consolidated marine mud, the airport now employs inert materials for land reclamation.
The inert materials come from the ARMC, which is one of the abandoned construction materials in the construction works in Macau. The materials are mainly stone, brick, concrete and sand.。
- According to the study conducted in Macau and the neighbouring regions, the stability and sedimentation performance of inert materials are ideal.
- The materials are obtained from the landfill and are relatively cheaper compared with sea sand.
- The reclaimed land of the airport will be divided into three layers: the upper layer will use mechanised sand, the middle layer will be composed of inert materials and the lower layer will be a mix of mechanised sand and sea sand. Such solution maximises the capacity of inert materials from ARMC, making it possible to meet the airport’s requirements for loading without the need for special foundation treatment.
According to the Administration Directory for Environmental Protection Construction Works Classification in The Mainland of China, the airport reclamation project belongs to the category of Sea Reclamation and Enclosure Project under Ocean Engineering. Therefore, in accordance with the Main Comments provided by the Ministry of Ecology and Environment for the Environmental Assessment of Macau Sea Area, an environmental impact report should be prepared and submitted to Ministry of Ecology and Environment for approval.
Preparation of the environmental assessment report
The environmental assessment is entrusted to SGIDI Engineering Consulting (Group) Co., Ltd, for assistance in its execution. The assessment covers two parts, namely, the sea area within 15 kilometres from the project boundary, as well as the land area within 300 to 500 metres beyond the project boundary and the construction camp and the surrounding area of 300 to 500 metres.
The Environmental Report brings together the following elements: investigation and assessment of the current state of the environment, engineering analysis, environmental impact forecast and assessment, environmental risk assessment, environmental protection measures plan, environmental management and monitoring plan, and results of the public consultation. The environmental measures described in the report cover both the construction and operation phases. The main points are as follows:
- Conduct environmental baseline monitoring prior to the construction phase
- Conduct environmental monitoring during the construction and operation phases
- Limit construction areas strictly
- Develop measures of environmentally friendly construction management
- Install anti-fouling screens at the drainage outlets
- Choose quieter marine equipment of recent model for construction
- Control of construction dust
- Fish stocking during fishing moratorium
- Adopt construction of ecological sea dikes and dike toes
- Regular cleaning of dredges, etc.
1. The airport expansion project complies with the relevant requirements of the National Marine Functional Zoning and Planning;
2. The impact of the construction works on the surrounding hydrodynamics, dredging environment, seawater quality, marine ecology and fishery resources, as well as acoustic environment, ambient air and aquatic environment of the land area, etc. is acceptable with the application of various environmental protection measures and ecological restoration and compensation measures;
3. Although the project poses environmental risks due to possible oil leakage caused by collisions of vessels in construction, these environmental risks are under control after relevant preventive measures are taken.
The ecological compensation measures adopted in the MIA expansion project based on the ecological development project of vertical water dikes are as follows:
Ecological hexagonal bricks, developed by the Australian Institute of Marine Science and the Reef Design Lab, will be installed to line the walls of the vertical dikes at the water passage between the north and the south, for the purpose of creating microenvironment for marine life and improving quality of seawater.
Given that the small geometric shape of these eco-bricks can provide a space for marine life, one can alter their perfectly flat structure and biologically difficult conditions to survive.
Ecological dikes at the southern end of the track
Given that the dike toes at the southern end of the track is the connection point to the sea-land ecological corridor, small-scale ecological design structures such as artificial reefs and rubbles will be adopted for the upper part of the dike toes, provided that the stability of the dike toes is not damaged.
Such design creates a heterogeneous ecological environment that provides shelters for reproduction, growth, bait and protection against predators, and promotes aggregation and recovery of marine life at dike toes.
Other restoration measures include fish stocking as well as conservation measures for Chinese white dolphin.